Finding safer ways to

manage and enjoy water




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Site index

This page is an index of the pages on our site categorised by topic. 




A short history of the 10:20 protection standard




Definitions: Accident-related terms

Guidance on accident reporting


Admissions policies

Admissions policies in the swimming pool environment



Alerting the team to danger in the swimming pool environment


Aqua aerobics

Guidance on aqua aerobics sessions


Assistive lifeguard technology

What is assistive lifeguard technology?

Assistive Lifeguard Technology. How it works and what the future holds

Index of drowning detection system retailers

How does assistive lifeguard technology identify water incidents?

Data protection and assisted lifeguard technology

Automated Vehicles Act. A precedent for drowning detection systems

Research Summary: Assistive Lifeguard Technology



Baby swimming

Guidance on baby swimming


Beach safety

UK Beach Safety Dashboard📶




Guidance on canoe sessions



Intervention Case Study: Clacton Pier


Competency assessment

Download a free sample competency assessment sheet📥

Download a free sample competency matrix📥


Constant pool/water-side supervision

See Supervision. 


Control measures

What are the duties of a safety professional?

Monitoring, measurement, and review of control measures


Corporate Manslaughter/homicide

An overview of corporate manslaughter



Disorderly behaviour

See Emergency Action Plan. 



Guidance on diving and jumping



What does drowning look like?

How do people drown in swimming pools?


Drowning (Coastal incidents)

Case Summary: Agnes Proudhon-Smith


Drowning (Inland incidents)

Case Summary: Anwaar Ali Ahmed

Case Summary: Asyer Daley

Case Summary: Audrey Kiernan

Case Summary: Ayxzel Galeon and Bryxzel Galeon

Case Summary: Cameron Sandell

Case Summary: Kajil Devi

Case Summary: Luke Fountain and Ashley Yardy


Drowning (Pool incidents)

Case Summary: Galleon Leisure Centre

Case Summary: Olly Kimber

Case Summary: Maya Kantengule

Case Summary: Sam Sebastian

Case Summary: Anthony Grant

Case Summary: Evan Davies

Case Summary: Jane Bell

Case Summary: St Edmond's School

Case Summary: Keenan Walsh

Case Summary: Komba Kpakiwa and Josephine Foday

Case Summary: Blakeney Dear

Case Summary: Elsa Carneau

Case Summary: Zainab Yusuf

Case Summary: Muhammad Talha Baber

Case Summary: Aidan Yule (Sands)

Case Summary: Harlow Fields School

Case Summary: Kaimen Ward

Case Summary: Seojin Kim

Case Summary: Sophie Konderak

Case Summary: Michelle Gellard

Case Summary: Suraj Mall

Case Summary: Luke Hutton

Case Summary: Harjeet Rathor

Case Summary: Tan Li

Case Summary: Madhav Cherukuri

Case Summary: Adrian Miles

Case Summary: Chad Mole

Case Summary: Daniel Bell-Chambers

Case Summary: Andrew Spry

Case Summary: Adrian Pullman

Case Summary: Gameli Akuklu and William Kadama

Case Summary: Danes Camp Leisure Centre

Case Summary: Jason Bibby

Case Summary: Charlotte Subuhon

Case Summary: Thomas Brown

Case Summary: John Rudderham

Case Summary: Vanessa Gregson and Tshan Kamara

Case Summary: Daniel Cummings

Case Summary: Joshua Curtis-Moore


Drowning (Residential incidents)

Case Summary: Ajay Shourie

Case Summary: Abdul-Moeez Hayyat

Case Summary: Anna Hider

Case Summary: Callum Grant


Drowning detection system

See Assistive Lifeguard Technology. 


Dog swim

Guidance on dog swim sessions


Dye test

Guidance on completing a dye test



Eating and swimming

Eating and swimming

Fasting and dieting



Man electrocuted on an outdoor five-a-side pitch


Emergency Action Plan (EAP)

What should be covered in the Emergency Action Plan?

Emergency evacuation in the swimming pool environment

Disorderly behaviour management in swimming pools

Download a free Pool Evacuation Procedure📥

Download a free Loss of Visibility Procedure📥

Download a free Water Contamination Procedure📥

Loss of visibility in the swimming pool environment

Missing persons in the swimming pool environment


Emergency responder

What is an emergency responder?



Energy cost estimation for UK swimming pools📶



First aid

Guidance on first aid



See Eating and Swimming. 



UK Operator Finance Dashboard📶🔒



Aquatic incidents involving UK citizens in France




How the courts use and apply guidance

Pool safety guidance index




Harmful emissions

Harmful emission incidents at UK swimming pools



What is a hazard?

Is drowning a hazard? A short guide to hazards in the water


Health and safety myths

Leisure safety myths from the HSE Myth Busters Challenge Panel


Hydrospin bikes

Hydrospin bikes


Hypoxic blackout

What is hypoxic blackout?

How long can a person hold their breath?

Hypoxic training in swimming pools


Hypoxic training

See Hypoxic Blackout.




Incidents (excl. drowning and asphyxia) at UK Leisure Facilities


Initial training 

See Training. 



A guide to Coroner's Inquests in drowning cases




UK&I health and safety legislation relevant to the leisure environment

Download a free UK&I Legal Register📥



Who is a lifeguard and what should they be able to do?

Do I need to provide a lifeguard?

How many lifeguards do I need to provide?


Lifeguard Zone Visibility Test (LZVT)

Do I need to conduct a Lifeguard Zone Visibility Test?

How do I conduct a Lifeguard Zone Visibility Test?

Download a free Lifeguard Zone Visibility Template📥



Everyday lifesavers from the UK



Missing person

See Emergency Action Plan. 



Normal Operating Procedure (NOP)

What should be covered in a Normal Operating Procedure?




How do I calculate my maximum pool occupancy?


Ongoing training

See Training.


Open water

Operator Guidance for the Safe Management of Open Water Activities



Personal injury precedents

Griffiths v TUI [2021] EWCA Civ 1442 (CA)

X v Kuoni Travel Ltd [2021] UKSC 34

Hutchinson v (1) Mapfre (2) Ice Mountain [2020] EWHC 178 (QB)

Bradfield-Kay v Cope [2019] EWHC 3881 (QBD)

Jet 2 Holidays Limited v (1) Karl Hughes (2) Laura Hughes [2018] EWHC 3716 (QB)

RXDX v Northampton Borough Council and DXDX [2015] EWHC 1677 (QB)

Lougheed v On The Beach Limited [2014] EWCA Civ 1538

McCarrick v Park Resorts Limited and others [2012] EWHC B27 (QB)

ZH v The Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis [2012] EWHC 604

Baker v Quantum [2011] UKSC 17

Grimes v Hawkins and Frimley Park Hospital NHS Foundation Trust [2011] EWHC 2004 (QB)

James Evans v Kosmar Villa Holidays plc [2007] EWCA Civ 1003

Linda Shields v Jarvis Hotels PLC and Edinburgh Leisure [2005] CSOH 104

Clough v First Choice Holidays and Flights Ltd [2006] EWCA Civ 15

O’Shea v Royal Borough of Kingston-Upon-Thames [1993]


Pool plan

How to put together a pool plan



Aquatic incidents involving UK citizens in Portugal



When do I need to write a procedure/work instruction?

Download a free Statement of Responsibilities template📥


Programmed sessions

See Session types. 




A guide to qualifications for the UK aquatic profession

Pool plant qualification data in the UK

Emergency responder qualification data in the UK

Swim teacher qualification data in the UK

Lifeguard qualification data in the UK




UK swimming pools impacted by RAAC



How many pool users can a lifeguard supervise in unprogrammed sessions?

How to determine learner-to-teacher ratios in programmed sessions


Remote supervision

See Supervision. 


Risk assessment

Is my risk assessment suitable and sufficient?

How do I implement my risk assessments?

How do I know if my risk assessment is suitable and sufficient?

How should I prepare to review my risk assessments?

When and how to review your risk assessments

Download a free swimming pool risk assessment template📥




Guidance on seizure management in aquatic environments


Session types

What are programmed and unprogrammed sessions?



Lifeguard skin safety


Slip safety

Download a free slip and trip risk assessment template📥

Guest slips on a waterlogged floor near a jacuzzi



Aquatic incidents involving UK citizens in Spain


Spinal cord injuries

Research Summary: Aquatic Spinal Cord Injuries

See Personal Injury Precedents


Standard of supervision

What is the Standard of Supervision?



What is constant poolside supervision?

Do I need to provide constant poolside supervision?

What is remote supervision?

How do lifeguards detect a drowning casualty?

How can training improve lifeguard incident detection?

How reliable are lifeguard visual search studies?

Factors that impact lifeguard performance



Results from the UK Pool Survey 2023📶



A guide to water incident data in the UK

UK commercial pool statistics

 UK inland water statistics

GB statistics for outdoor activity

GB statistics for the blue economy

Leisure Economy of Great Britain📶

UK Drowning data adjusted for population size📶

UK Drownings at work📶

UK Drowning fatalities by sex and age📶

UK Drowning data dashboard📶🔒

UK Statistics for water incidents by year

UK Statistics for drowning fatalities by day of the week

UK Statistics of drowning fatalities by water body type

UK Statistics for drowning fatalities by activity

UK Statistics for drowning fatalities by age and sex

UK Swimming Pool Statistics📶


Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS)

Download a free Sustainable Drainage Systems checklist📥


Swim ability

Does the ability to swim keep my child safe around open water?




A-Z of leisure health and safety terms


Third-party hirers

Third-party use in the swimming pool environment



Download a free sample Initial and Ongoing Competency Assessment Tracker📥


Trip safety

See Slip Safety. 




Intervention Case Study: Ullswater



Pool undercrofts



Lifeguard uniform


Unprogrammed sessions

See Session Types. 




The Recreational Craft Regulations 2017



Water clarity

Pool plant operator dismissed for making water quality worse

Duty manager dismissed for closing pool after water clarity concerns


Water Incident Research Hub database

WIRH database structure

WAID-WIRH database comparison

Comparison of the Utstein and Water Incident Reporting Systems

Our methodology for archiving water incidents


Water safety resources

Aquatic safety books and journals

Useful water safety blogs and websites



Audit focus - Waterslides

A guide to waterslide landing type requirements

Sample waterslide risk assessment template

Download a free sample Waterslide Risk Assessment template📥

Boy injured by flume with insufficient water flow

Research Summary: Waterslide Safety

Waterslide Operator Training Course



Young person

Does a lifeguard need a young person's risk assessment?